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光纤发展史

更新整理时间:2013-09-04 13:43:06 信息浏览

 

   人类从未放弃过对理想光传输介质的寻找,经过不懈的努力,人们发现了透明度很高的石英玻璃丝可以传光。这种玻璃丝叫做光学纤维,简称“光纤”。 人们用它制造了在医疗上用的内窥镜,例如做成胃镜,可以观察到距离一米左右的体内情况。但是它的衰减损耗很大,只能传送很短的距离。光的损耗程度是用每千米的分贝为单位来衡量的。直到20世纪60年代,最好的玻璃纤维的衰减损耗仍在每公里1000分贝以上。每公里1000分贝的损耗是什么概念呢?每公里10分贝损耗就是输入的信号传送1公里后只剩下了十分之一,20分贝就表示只剩下百分之一,30分贝是指只剩千分之一……1000分贝的含意就是只剩下亿百分之一,是无论如何也不可能用于通信的。因此,当时有很多科学家和发明家认为用玻璃纤维通信希望渺茫,失去了信心,放弃了光纤通信的研究。

  激光器和光纤的发明,使人们看到了光通信的曙光。而要实现光纤通信,还需要在激光器和光纤的性能上有重大的突破。但是在这两方面的突破遇到了许多困难,尤其是光纤的损耗要达到可用于通信的要求,从每千米损耗1000分贝降低到20分贝似乎不太可能,以致很多科学家对实现光纤通信失去了信心。就在这种情况下,出生于上海的英藉华人高锟(K.C.Kao)博士,通过在英国标准电信实验室所作的大量研究的基础上,对光波通信作出了一个大胆的设想。他认为,既然电可以沿着金属导线传输,光也应该可以沿着导光的玻璃纤维传输。1966年7月,高锟就光纤传输的前景发表了具有重大历史意义的论文,论文分析了玻璃纤维损耗大的主要原因,大胆地预言,只要能设法降低玻璃纤维的杂质,就有可能使光纤的损耗从每公里1000分贝降低到20分贝/公里,从而有可能用于通信。这篇论文使许多国家的科学家受到鼓舞,加强了为实现低损耗光纤而努力的信心。

  世界上第一根低损耗的石英光纤――1970年,美国康宁玻璃公司的三名科研人员马瑞尔、卡普隆、凯克成功地制成了传输损耗每千米只有20分贝的光纤。这是什么概念呢?用它和玻璃的透明程度比较,光透过玻璃功率损耗一半(相当于3分贝)的长度分别是:普通玻璃为几厘米、高级光学玻璃最多也只有几米,而通过每千米损耗为20分贝的光纤的长度可达150米。这就是说,光纤的透明程度已经比玻璃高出了几百倍!在当时,制成损耗如此之低的光纤可以说是惊人之举,这标志着光纤用于通信有了现实的可能性。

1970年激光器和低损耗光纤这两项关键技术的重大突破,使光纤通信开始从理想变成可能,这立即引起了各国电信科技人员的重视,他们竞相进行研究和实验。1974年美国贝尔研究所发明了低损耗光纤制作法――CVD法(汽相沉积法),使光纤损耗降低到1分贝/公里;1977年,贝尔研究所和日本电报电话公司几乎同时研制成功寿命达100万小时(实用中10年左右)的半导体激光器,从而有了真正实用的激光器。1977年,世界上第一条光纤通信系统在美国芝加哥市投入商用,速率为45Mb/s。

  进入实用阶段以后,光纤通信的应用发展极为迅速,应用的光纤通信系统已经多次更新换代。70年代的光纤通信系统主要是用多模光纤,应用光纤的短波长(850纳米)波段,(1纳米=1000兆分之一米,即米)。80年代以后逐渐改用长波长(1310纳米),光纤逐渐采用单模光纤,到90年代初,通信容量扩大了50倍,达到2.5Gb/s。进入90年代以后,传输波长又从1310纳米转向更长的1550纳米波长,并且开始使用光纤放大器、波分复用(WDM)技术等新技术。通信容量和中继距离继续成倍增长。广泛地应用于市内电话中继和长途通信干线,成为通信线路的骨干。

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